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Glossary, reference index
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A limited selection of interdisciplinary terms and concepts used in materials on The Foundation site, compiled by the site editor on behalf of the Foundation.  Visitors are invited to suggest additional references. See also:
Glossary of global climate change terms  developed by Environmental Protection Agency.
Glossary of theological terms - a brief discussion of a series of terms that the student of Christian theology is likely to encounter in the course of his/her studies. This glossary is taken from Alister McGrath's Christian Theology, Second Edition.
On-line Glossary of theological terms -  a project of the Department of Theology, The University of Notre Dame. Several hundred terms (and growing) for the study of Christian and Hebrew Scriptures, and other theological matters. Listings include: Alphabetic List of All Glossary Entries, Biblical Names and Nations, The Biblical Books and their Authors, The Hebrew Bible, The New Testament, Technical Terms, Place Names, Historical (Extra-Biblical) Names, Religions and Belief Systems, World Religions
Religion and Science Glossary  - a student group project. A list of important scientific, religious, and philosophic language terms and short definitions used with key study texts to help bridge discussion between science and religion. The order of terms follows the flow of discussion in the books from which the terminology is drawn.

Glossary, reference index

abundance new understandings of
Agenda 21 A broad-based action plan coming out of the 1992 "Earth Summit" to move toward sustainable development into the 21st century. Analysis, objectives and recommended actions, distributed into 40 chapters
agendas for change economics & values, elements for policy debate, need for new economic paradigm, introduction to the related issues for action, action for transformation, African view, strategies from Latin America
Bruntland Commission From 1983 to 1987 the UN-appointed World Commission on Environment and Development, the Brundtland Commission, searched for ways to both promote development and protect the environment. Its report, Our Common Future, published in 1987, thrust the term "sustainable development" into public discourse.
carrying capacity find definition -
churches role of in facing ecological crisis. See particularly Vischer article.
community need for widened vision, historical strata in society
conservation v. consumption
conventions signed at Earth Summit and subsequent protocols See UNCED archives

Convention on Protection of Biodiversity

UN Framework convention on Climate Change (1992)
Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate change (1997)

dumping (see also "social dumping") As noted by Williams, "Dumping occurs when a firm sells in a foreign market at a price below its cost of production. Anti-dumping regulations are designed to protect domestic firms from the "effects of unfairly priced imports", as such they may include duties or penalties to neutralize the extent of the below-cost sales."
"Earth Summit" The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, "the Earth Summit". Held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992.
economics, environmental macro and micro limitations on current thinking, steps already taken: accounting for the environment
economics, labour market mechanism and wage rates, labour flexibility
economy size and growth of  v. environment, as an open system inside finite system
employment official meaning of full labour force employment
environmental economics macro and micro limitations on current thinking, steps already taken: accounting for the environment
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. (GATT) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947. Extended by the Uruguay round to include services, intellectual property and investment measures. Succeeded by WTO World Trade Organization.
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) Multilateral trade agreements from the Uruguay round, the GATS extends the GATT into previously excluded areas such as banking, insurance, and other services. As noted by Williams: "It thus encourages the takeover of these areas by international financial interests who can then determine national fiscal and investment policies. As a result, safeguards in places in many countries to protect workers and ensure a minimal access to health and other services may be drastically curtailed or eliminated. This will further intensify privatization efforts."
Generalized system of preferences (GSP) A system whereby the developed countries permit duty-free entry of selected products from developing countries.
labour, formal and informal definitions
NICs Newly Industrializing Countries
Nontariff barriers to trade (NTBs) Measures other than tariffs that are used by governments to restrict imported goods. NTBs encompass a wide variety of instruments such as labelling and package requirements, import quotas, subsidies and domestic content requirements.] These forces combined to engender the restructuring of the industrial base of the world economy.  See Williams.
paradigm shift  elements of, emerging paradigms, alternative visions: Mondragon's Society of Cooperatives, Korten's People-Centered Economy, Daly and Cobb's Wholistic Community of Communities, Theobald's Economic Security Plan. See also values.
photosynthesis, NPP Net primary production (NPP) of photosynthesis, according to Daly, may be "the best index of the scale of the human economy as part of the biosphere". NPP is the amount of solar energy captured in photosynthesis by primary producers, less the energy used in their own growth and reproduction. NPP is thus the basic food resource for everything on earth not capable of photosynthesis. 25% of potential global (terrestrial and aquatic) NPP is now appropriated by human beings. "
Plimsoll line ecological Plimsoll line. See optimal scale
policy initiatives energy tax, energy productivity, pricing - see Weizsäcker, Opschoor
  macroeconomic policy implications - see Daly
preanalytic vision See Daly article, critique of environmental economics: Joseph Schumpeter's descriptive term for the preanalytic cognitive act ("vision") which provides the basis for analysis.  Thre must be something to analyze, as Daly notes, "One might say that vision is what the "right brain" supplies to the "left brain" for analysis. Whatever is omitted from the preanalytic vision cannot be recaptured by subsequent analysis."
qualitative growth development in context of the fullness of life,
optimal scale see scale, a glittering anomaly,
optimal allocation, distribution See Daly's discussion of the market as a mechanism of providing information and incentive for allocation of resources, limited in its capacity to address optimal scale and optimal distribution. ]
social dumping (see also "dumping") As noted by Williams, "The idea of social dumping develops from the problem of dumping discussed above. At its most simplest it refers to differences in labor cost in different parts of the world. However, when the cost difference is due to the over exploitation or otherwise reprehensible treatment of workers it is seen as a unfair trade advantage that could potentially be penalized the same as with traditional dumping. some activists argue that social dumping is also a form of subsidy against which countervailing duties could be applied."
scale  quoted in Daly: "the physical scale or size of the human presence in the ecosystem, as measured by population times per capital resource use."   in production and consumption, optimal scale - a macroeconomic goal often lost in microeconomic analysis,  in context of intergenerational responsibilities, broadening motivational horizon
Sustainable society as defined in the 1970s faith and science debates, intergenerational  time factor, as a process and factors of nonsustainability, insights into concept of
sustainable development, From 1983 to 1987 the UN-appointed World Commission on Environment and Development, the Brundtland Commission, searched for ways to both promote development and protect the environment. Its report, Our Common Future, published in 1987, thrust the term "sustainable development" into public discourse. The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio, helped make sustainable development a buzz word in political, developmental and environmental circles.  See Earth Summit, ecumenical background.  Karshenas definition: "in terms of the pattern of structural change in natural and man-made capital stock (including human capital and technological capabilities), which ensures the feasibility of at least a minimum socially desired rate of growth in the long-run".
sustainability Stahel:   "SUSTAINABILITY is based on several pillars, each of which is essential for the 'survival' of the natural eco-system on Earth. This means that we cannot argue on priorities, or speculate on which of these pillars we can afford to lose first. In fact, we cannot take the risk of losing any single one of them:
1. eco-support system for life on the planet (e.g. biodiversity): a factor of the regional carrying capacity of nature with regard to populations and their lifestyle.
2. toxicology (qualitative): a direct danger to roan, resulting increasingly of man's own activities,
3. flows of matter (quantitative): a factor of change for the planet (towards a re-acidification) and thus a danger to man's life on Earth.
The 'Quest for a Sustainable Society', however, must be much broader and include the longevity and sustainability of our
4. societal and economic structures.
This insight was at the base of the movement that coined the English term 'sustainability' in the early '70s: the Woodlands Conferences in Houston, Texas, and the related Mitchell Prize Competitions, have focused on the quest for a sustainable society. In order to understand the importance of necessary changes towards a more sustainable economy, it is vital to keep in mind the wider reference of a sustainable society (including subjects such as full and meaningful employment, quality of life)." 
difficulties in defining sustainability
sustainable scale see scale
sustainable society as defined in the 1970s faith and science debates, intergenerational  time factor,
theological perspectives role of human beings in creation, abundance, hope.  See also, values. Basic moral presumptions, setting moral priorities
throughput - find definition Daly
Trade Related Environmental Measures (TREMS) Williams notes:   "Proponents such as the Dutch government would like to see Trade Related Environmental Measures (TREMS) which include environmental codes with regard to GATT/WTO...criteria for the use of trade instruments for environmental protection and nature preservation purposes including environmental concepts such as the 'Polluter Pays' and the 'Precautionary Principle'. Policy shift from direct regulations by the national government to less direct forms of regulation such as covenants and ecolabels..."
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Multilateral trade agreement from the Uruguay round which extend the GATT into domestic regulatory standards as opposed to the traditional realm of foreign policy.
GATT clause which allow foreign companies and scientists as patent-holders to privatize, monopolize and commercialize biological and cultural heritage and common property. (Mies)
Williams notes, "Utilizing present laws in the industrialized countries as standards, the TRIPs agreement will require uniform intellectual property rights. The intent of these laws is to protect the monopoly rights of transnational corporations who will be able to patent and copyright all types of products: plants, animal varieties and biological processes for plant and animal production. TRIPS extend the maturity period for rights and will preclude governmental limitations on such rights for the public good...
Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) Multilateral The trade agreement from the Uruguay Round, the central purpose of TRIMS, as noted in Williams, "is to end restrictions on foreign investment. With this agreement, countries can no longer have special rules or requirement that would protect land and industries from being overtaken by foreign investors. Specifically the TRIMS will eliminate or substantially reduce local content requirements; export requirement; trade-balancing requirements; local equity requirements and manufacturing limitations. TRIMS will also have serious implications for social policy development; financing, control of bank credits, employment fiscal and monetary policy." (
UNCED UNCED Archives  - all documents and the final report of the 1992 The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, known as The Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro.
values values underlying economic assumptions, value changes in goods & services market.
World Commission on Environment and Development Known as the Brundtland Commission. See above.
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